[PART I – MYSTERIES]
[PART II – CURRENT THEORIES OF OBESITY ARE INADEQUATE]
[PART III – ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS]
[INTERLUDE A – CICO KILLER, QU’EST-CE QUE C’EST?]
[PART IV – CRITERIA]
[PART V – LIVESTOCK ANTIBIOTICS]
[INTERLUDE B – THE NUTRIENT SLUDGE DIET]
[PART VI – PFAS]
[PART VII – LITHIUM]
[INTERLUDE C – HIGHLIGHTS FROM THE REDDIT COMMENTS]
[INTERLUDE D – GLYPHOSATE (AKA THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT IN ROUNDUP)]
[INTERLUDE E – BAD SEEDS]
[PART VIII – PARADOXICAL REACTIONS]
[PART IX – ANOREXIA IN ANIMALS]
The stereotype is that poor people are more obese than rich people, but rich countries are definitely more obese on average than poor countries:
This same trend of wealth being related to obesity is also mirrored within many countries. In poor countries, upper-class people are generally more likely to be obese than lower-class people. For example, in India rich people are fatter than poor people.
We see that the general pattern between countries is that wealth is associated with obesity, and we see the pattern within most poor countries is also that wealth is associated with obesity. Given this, it would be kind of surprising if the relationship ran the other way around in wealthy countries.
Still, common-sense beliefs say that — in America at least — poor people are more obese than rich people, maybe a lot more obese. But evidence for this idea is pretty elusive.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is an ongoing project by the CDC where every year they take a nationally representative sample of about 5,000 Americans and collect a bunch of information about their health and lifestyle and so on. In 2010 a NCHS team led by Cynthia Ogden examined the NHANES data from 2005-2008. They wanted to find out if there was any relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, the exact same question we have in this post.
The results of their analysis were mixed, but there certainly wasn’t a strong relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity. Their key findings were:
Among men, obesity prevalence is generally similar at all income levels, however, among non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American men those with higher income are more likely to be obese than those with low income.
Higher income women are less likely to be obese than low income women, but most obese women are not low income.
There is no significant trend between obesity and education among men. Among women, however, there is a trend, those with college degrees are less likely to be obese compared with less educated women.
Between 1988–1994 and 2007–2008 the prevalence of obesity increased in adults at all income and education levels.
Cynthia Ogden got to do it again in 2017, this time looking at the NHANES data from 2011-2014, trying to figure out the same thing. Again the picture was complicated — in some groups there is a relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, but it sure ain’t universal. This time her team concluded:
Obesity prevalence patterns by income vary between women and men and by race/Hispanic origin. The prevalence of obesity decreased with increasing income in women (from 45.2% to 29.7%), but there was no difference in obesity prevalence between the lowest (31.5%) and highest (32.6%) income groups among men. Moreover, obesity prevalence was lower among college graduates than among persons with less education for non-Hispanic white women and men, non-Hispanic black women, and Hispanic women, but not for non-Hispanic Asian women and men or non-Hispanic black or Hispanic men. The association between obesity and income or educational level is complex and differs by sex, and race/non-Hispanic origin.
If you don’t trust us but do trust the Washington Post, here’s their 2018 article on Ogden’s work.
The studies that do find a relationship between income and obesity tend to qualify it pretty heavily. For example, this paper from 2018 finds a relationship between obesity and income in data from 2015, but not in data from 1990. This suggests that any income-obesity connection, if it exists, is pretty new, and this matches the NHANES analysis above, which found some evidence for a connection 2011-2014 but almost no evidence 2005-2008. Here’s a pull quote and relevant figure:
Whereas by 2015 these inverse correlations were strong, these correlations were non-existent as recently as 1990. The inverse correlations have evolved steadily over recent decades, and we present equations for their time evolution since 1990.
Another qualifier can be found in this meta-analysis from 2018. This paper argues that while there seems to be a relationship between income and obesity, it’s not that being poor makes you obese, it’s that being obese makes you poor. “Obesity is considered a cause for lower income,” they say, “when obese people drift into lower-income jobs due to labour–market discrimination and public stigmatisation.”
Anyone who is familiar with how we treat obese people should find this theory plausible. But we don’t even have to bring discrimination into it — being obese can lead to fatigue and health complications, both of which might hurt your ability to find or keep a good job.
This may explain why Cynthia Ogden found a relationship between income and obesity for women but not for men. It’s not that rich women tend to stay thin; it’s that thin women tend to become rich. A thin woman will get better job offers, is more likely to find a wealthy partner, is more likely to find a partner quickly, etc. Meanwhile, there’s a double standard for how men are expected to look, and so being overweight or even obese hurts a man’s financial success much less. This kind of discrimination could easily lead to the differences we see.
But the biggest qualifier is the relationship between race and income. If you’re at all familiar with race in America, you’ll know that white people make more money, have more opportunities, etc. than black people do. Black Americans also have slightly higher rates of obesity. The NHANES data we mentioned earlier contain race data and are publicly available, so we decided to take a look. In particular, we now have complete data up to 2017-2018, so we decided to update the analysis.
Sure enough, when we look at the correlation between BMI and household income, we see a small negative relationship, where people with more income weigh less. But we have to emphasize, this relationship is MEGA WEAK, only r = -.037. Another way to put this is that household income explains only one-tenth of a percent of the variance in BMI! Because the sample size is so huge, this is statistically significant — but not by much, p = .011. And as soon as we control for race, the effect of income disappears entirely.
We see the same thing with the relationship between BMI and family income. A super weak relationship of only r = -.031, explaining only 0.07% of the variance in BMI, p = .032. As soon as we control for race, the effect of income disappears.
We see the same thing with the relationship between BMI and education. Weak-ass correlation, r = -032, p = .022, totally vanishes as soon as we control for race.
Any income effect needs to take into account the fact that African-Americans have higher BMIs and make less than whites do, and the fact that Asian-Americans have lower BMIs and make slightly more than whites do.
We don’t see much of a connection between income and obesity. If there is a link, it’s super weak and/or super idiosyncratic. Even if the connection exists, it could easily be that being obese makes you poorer, not that being poor makes you obese.
Race actually doesn’t explain all that much about BMI either. A simple model shows that in the 2017-2018 data at least, race/ethnicity explains only 4.5% of the variance in BMI. The biggest effect isn’t that African-Americans are heavier than average, it’s that Asian-Americans are MUCH leaner than everyone else. In this sample, 42% of whites are obese (BMI > 30), 49% of African-Americans are obese, but only 16% of Asian-Americans are obese!
On the topic of race, some readers have tried to argue that race can explain the altitude and/or watershed effects we see in the Continental United States. But we don’t think that’s the case, so let’s take a closer look. Here’s the updated map based on data from 2019:
This map is for all adults, and things have not changed much in 2019. Colorado is still the leanest state; the states along the Mississippi river are still among the most obese. Now, it’s true that a lot of African-Americans do live in the south. But race can’t explain this because the effect is pretty similar for all races.
For non-hispanic white Americans, Colorado is still one of the leanest states (second-leanest after Hawaii) and states like Mississippi are still the most obese:
For non-hispanic black Americans, Colorado is still one of the leanest states, and while you can’t see it on this map because the CDC goofed with the ranges, states like Mississippi and Alabama are still the most obese:
In fact, here’s a hasty photoshop with extended percentile categories:
If the overall altitude pattern were the result of race, we wouldn’t see the same pattern for both white and black and Americans — but we do, so it isn’t.
[Next Time: Li+]